Keep Spinoza Excommunicated!

For almost 90 years, fans of the philosopher have been agitating for his 1656 expulsion from the Portuguese-Jewish community of Amsterdam to be overturned. When that community’s leaders considered undoing that decree in 2012, they asked Spinoza scholar Steven Nadler for advice. He told them “there were no good historical or legal reasons for lifting the ban, and rather good reasons against lifting it.” Here, he explains why.